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[]G1鷲G2ؤμf3򤹤٤ȤfƱȤ

  1. fϽƱǤ롣
  2. G1ΰۤʤ븵fˤäƱ˰ܤ뤳ȤϤʤ
  3. G2θϤ٤f(x) (xG1)ηɽ롣

ˡ̵°̿ν󷲤ؤμ

[]G=<a>̵°̿Ȥ롣¨Ga̵°̿ǤȤ롣
ΤȤˡZ顢Gؤμff(x)=axСfƱǤ롣

[]a̵°̿ʤΤǡa򲿾褷Ƥñ̸ˤʤʤΤᡢG̵½G={,aSPU{-1};,e,a,}Ȥʤ롣

[1]fϽƱǤ뤳Ȥ򼨤

[]G򷲡aG1ĤθȤ롣ˡZ鷲Gؤμff(x)=axСf:ZGϽƱˤʤפ顢ľܼ롣

[2]G1ΰۤʤ븵fˤäƱ˰ܤ뤳ȤϤʤȤ򼨤

f(x)=f(x') (x,x'Z)
ax=ax'
x=x'ʢ衢aiˤϥ֤꤬ʤ

[3]G2θϤ٤f(x) (xG1)ηɽ뤳Ȥ򼨤

GǤդθam (mZ)η˽񤱤Τǡam=f(m)Ωġ

äơ[1][2][3]ꡢfƱǤ롣